Community-Based Planning

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Author: 
Karin Kleiwer et al.
Date: 
2010-01-01

Community-Based Planning

Engagement, Collaboration, and Meaningful Participation
in the Creation of Neighbourhood Plans

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Contents

Ackknowledgements viii

Introduction 1

  • Setting the Stage 1
    • Community Development 1
    • Challenges 1
    • Neighbourhood Renewal Context 2
    • Biases and Assumptions 3
    • Research Goals 4
    • Guide Structure 5

About Plans and Planning 5

  • What Is Planning? 5
    • Why Plan? 6
    • Why Participate? 7
  • Types of Planning (Planning Theories) 8
    • Rational Planning 8
    • Pragmatism 8
    • Advocacy Planning 9
    • Collaborative and Communicative Planning 10
    • Decision Making: Consensus and Dissensus 10
  • Statutory Plans 11
    • Development Plan 11
    • Secondary Plan 12
    • Zoning By-Laws 12
    • Sustainability Approaches to Planning 13
    • Summary 13
  • Non-Statutory Plans 14
    • Neighbourhood Plans 14
    • Social Plans 15
    • Theme-Based Plans 16
    • Traditional or Community-Based Land Use Planning 16
    • Section Summary 16

Neighbourhood Planning 17

  • Introduction 17
  • Getting Started 18
    • Funding the Plan 18
    • Working with Others: Roles and Responsibilities 18
    • Gathering Information 18
    • Involving Stakeholders 19
    • The Plan 20
    • Components of a Good Plan 20
    • Characteristics of a Good Plan 22
    • Updating Existing Plans 23
    • Theme-Based Plans 24
  • The Process 24
    • Characteristics of a Good Process 24
    • What to Expect (Stages of a Process) 27
    • Process Example 28
  • Implementation 29
    • Putting the Plan into Practice 29
    • Evaluation 31
    • Section Summary 31

Engaging Communiites 32

  • Introduction 32
  • Levels of Citizen Participation 32
  • Engagement Techniques 34
    • Technique Explanations 34
    • Conflict in the Community 37
    • Principles for Collaboration 37
    • Negotiation Practice 38
    • Positions and Interests 38
    • Planner Strategies 39
  • Troubleshooting 40
  • Section Summary 47

Conclusions 48

Appendix 49
Additional Resources for Community Planning Techniques 49
Web Resources 49
Print Resources 49

Sources 51

List of Figures
Figure 1. Organizational and Process Diagram 30
Figure 2. Province of Manitoba Continuum of Community Engagement 33
Figure 3. Increasing Levels of Public Participation 34
Figure 4. Engagement Techniques 35
Figure 5. Positions and Interests — Discovering What’s “Beneath the Surface” 40
Figure 6. Multi-Party Positions and Interests 41

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