Transforming or Reforming Capitalism: Towards a Theory of Community Economic Development

Author +
John Loxley (editor)

Year: 2007

Growing worldwide interest in community economic development has led to a blossoming of “how to” manuals,as well as analyses of co-operatives, development corporations, gender, financing, etc. Yet in all this discussion very little is said about the basic objective of CED: Is it designed to fill holes left by capitalism or is it intended to replace it? There is equally little on a theory of CED. This book draws on several disciplines—particularly economics, sociology and political studies—to assess the state of CED theory and to identify implicit issues for building that theory. It emphasizes the necessity to draw theoretical insights from each discipline, in the process howing the efficacy of interdisciplinary approaches. It concludes with a discussion of both future theoretical directions and of what existing theory has to say about achieving a transformative CED.


  • The Necessity for Theory in Community Economic Development (John Loxley)
  • The Ideal of Community in the Era of Globalization: Challenges and Possibilities (Parvin Ghorayshi, Heather Graydon and Benita Kliewer)
  • Towards an Economic Theory of Community Economic Development (Laura Lamb)
  • Community Economic Development: Governance and State-Civil society Relations (Byron M. Sheldrick)
  • Achieving the Promise of Community Economic Development: some Remaining Theoretical Challenges (John Loxley)

About the Author

John Loxley is Professor and former head of the Department of Economics at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. He specializes in international finance, international development and community economic development, in particular alternatives to orthodox economic theory and policy. His distinguished career includes stints at Makerere University and the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, as well as service to the governments of Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Manitoba as economic advisor. Professor Loxley is the author of Debt and Disorder:  External Financing for Development and the coordinator of the Alternative Federal Budget exercise in Canada.

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